and the evidence isinteresting. Survey data from 77 countries (147
118 respondents) suggests that risk takingdeclines across the life spanâas we get older
we take fewer risks. However
there aredifferences across countries. In countries in which hardship (e.g.
social unrest andeconomic strife) exists
risk does not decline as the people get older. These findings suggestthat when resources are scarce
people must continue to assume risk to compete forresources
so risk taking does not decline as they age.48Research on risk taking found that there were some changes over the life span (from age 15to 85). So this does suggest that some personality traits may change or be malleable over along period of time. The discussion about Mach and self-monitoring revealed that sometraits may not always be desirable
so you may be wondering if there is any theory orresearch in OB that suggests that personality traits can change. Some scholars believe thatcertain personality characteristics are state-like instead of trait-like. Trait-like implies thatthe personality characteristic is relatively stable over time. State-like
on the other hand
refers to personality characteristics that are relatively changeable
and a person can develop(or reduce) them through either self-awareness and/or training. New research suggests thatpsychological capital (PsyCap) characteristics are more stable than fleeting states of mind
but they are open to change. This is an emerging area of study within the movement calledpositive psychology
and research is showing promising results.103
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