write:Also employees that had attended time management training (a half-dayseminar) did not report any significant differences in stress satisfaction or performance. 154 Timemanagemen

“I break down tasks”)
(2) mechanics of planning and scheduling (e.g.
“I write reminder notes”)
(3) perceived control of time (e.g.
“I am overwhelmed by tasks”—reversed)
and(4) having a preference for disorganization (e.g.
“I have a messy workspace”—reversed).153The most predictive time management factor was the perceived control of time. The 165 students whocompleted a time management survey reported higher GPAs and work and life satisfaction
and lower stress(less role ambiguity
less role overload
and reported fewer job-related health issues such as headaches andinsomnia) when they felt that they had more control over their time. A study of 353 government employeesfound that engaging in time management behaviors reduced tension and increased job satisfaction but didnot relate to job performance. Also
employees that had attended time management training (a half-dayseminar) did not report any significant differences in stress
or performance.154 Timemanagement may alleviate stress while you are a student and also on the job. Also
job and life satisfactionmay be enhanced. However
the link to job performance is less clear. Time management training may nothave the impact that much of the popular press claims. Following the general guidelines suggested by thisresearch may be just as beneficial as training: Set goals and priorities
schedule tasks well
and stay organized.Discussion Questions1. One factor is the degree to which a person’s work area is organized—that is
not messy. Is yourwork area organized? Do you think it makes a difference in your stress and performance?2. Why do you think that time management is not related clearly to productivity (recall the discussionof the optimum level of stress for performance known as the Yerkes-Dodson law discussed earlier inthis chapter)?Sources: Macan
T. H. (1994). Time management: Test of a process model. Journal of Applied Psychology
381; Macan
T. H.
R. L.
& Phillips
A. P. (1990). College students’ timemanagement: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology
760.Employee Assistance ProgramsWhen an employee exhibits a clear stress reaction that is affecting his relationships withcoworkers and performance
a referral may be made for counseling through an employeeassistance program (EAP). These programs have become common in most largeorganizations. Although these counseling programs may be in-house
they are usuallydelivered through an outside agency. The employer typically offers the services of the EAPas an employee benefit. EAPs may provide counseling
and referralsappropriate for treatment and support services. For example
most universities offer freecounseling services for students who may be experiencing stress in coping with the demandsof school and/or work and family. An interview study of organizational leaders in Australiafound that EAPs were an important source of support that can be offered by organizations758


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