a product must be redesigned or the composition of some materials used for different parts must be changed. Many businesses find it difficult to incorporate life-cycle thinking into their operations because it requires a conceptualization of the entity’s environmental challenges as a system. The technique examines all environmental impacts and suggests ways to improve product and service environmental performance along their cycle (Oyedele and Adeniyi
30). Life-cycle assessment
eco-labellingÂ and environmental product declaration
as well as environmental management systems and supply chain management
can all help to achieve Life-cycle thinking in practice. Companies can use life-cycle thinking to map out and mitigate the environmental implications of their products and services.