write:Mountains also increase surface roughness thereby decreasing wind speeds. The smog problem over the Los Angeles Basin is also affected by the adjacent cool waters of the Pacific.

parking lots
etc. Such flows affect the behavior of smokestack plumes. In river valleys
downslope airflows at night intensify (deepen) surface-based inversions
and valley winds during the day help move pollutants upslope and out of the valley. Mountains also serve as barriers to air movement. In the Los Angeles Basin
the San Bernardino Mountains retard airflow in northerly and easterly directions
further intensifying smog and haze conditions. Mountains also increase surface roughness
thereby decreasing wind speeds. The smog problem over the Los Angeles Basin is also affected by the adjacent cool waters of the Pacific. When sea breezes bring cool air in from the ocean
warmer air is pushed aloft
further intensifying the elevated inversion. Mesoscale airflow patterns occur on relatively calm days in coastal areas as a result of differential heating and cooling of land and water surfaces. During summer
when skies are clear and prevailing winds light
land surfaces warm more rapidly than sea and lake water. The subsequently warmed air flows up and waterward. As a consequence of temperature and pressure differences
air flows landward at the surface from the water
forming a sea or lake breeze. Air moving from the land cools and descends to form a weak circulation cell. At night
rapid radiational cooling of the land results in surface airflows toward water
forming a land breeze. These land breezes are generally lighter than lake and sea breezes. Land
sea
and lake breezes
and the circulation patterns that form with them
occur only when prevailing winds are light. They are overridden when winds are strong. In the case of the south coast of California
sea breezes intensify subsidence inversions. They may also cause advective inversions
which commonly occur in late spring when large bodies of water are still cold relative to adjacent land areas. As water-cooled air moves inland
it warms; the inversion is broken up and replaced by superadiabatic lapse rate conditions. The weak circulation cells associated with land
lake
and sea breezes may allow pollutants to be recirculated to some degree and carried over from one day to the next. 3.1.7 Pollutant Dispersion from Point Sources Point sources may occur at ground level
or as is often the case
pollutants are emitted from smokestacks that vary in height. The subsequent history of plumes formed depends on (1) the physical and chemical nature of pollutants
(2) meteorological factors such as wind speed and atmospheric stability
(3) location of the source relative to physical obstructions
and (4) topographical factors that affect air movement. As these affect plume rise
its spread horizontally and vertically
and its transport
they also affect maximum ground-level concentrations (MGLCs) and the distance of MGLCs from the source. Air quality 88

 

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