write:Researchers at the Communication Between Humans and Interactive Media Lab at Stanford University studied digital distraction and focus. Researchers gave the same three cognitive te

your mind is better able to absorb data
and trends and synthesize the new information with what you already know. As a result
you are more likely to come up with innovative ideas. If you are multitasking or are trying to function with only partial attention
your ability to synthesize information may be compromised.Researchers at the Communication Between Humans and Interactive Media Lab at Stanford University studied digital distraction and focus. Researchers gave the same three cognitive tests to two different groups of test subjects:1. Media (high) multitaskers Forty-nine subjects who spent a lot of time searching the Internet
gaming online
watching TV
and hanging out on social media sites.2. Low multitaskers Fifty-two subjects who spent less time online and multitasked signifi-cantly less often.Ten years ago
many believed that the Internet sharpened cognitive skills. Gaming required fast thinking and good motor skills. In contrast to widely held assumptions
the subjects who were heavy online users scored poorly on the cognitive test. One explanation for their poor performance was that they had attention deficitsÑless control over their attention. Because of their inability to concentrate for long
they were not able to distinguish important information from trivia. Researchers continue to study whether chronic media multitaskers are born with an inability to concentrate or are damaging their cognitive control by willingly taking in so much at once. Science also shows that the best strategy to improve focus is to practice doing it.Michael Merzenich
a neuroscientist
gave a biological explanation of the impacts of mul-titasking on focus ability. He explained that the more you focus
the more your brain releases a chemical called noradrenaline
which helps you concentrate on the task at hand.The American Psychological Association disagrees saying that ÒAlthough switch costs may be relatively small
sometimes just a few tenths of a second per switch
they can add up to large amount when people switch repeatedly back and both between tasks. Thus
multi-tasking may see efficient on the surface
but may actually take more time in the end and involve more errorÓ (Wrike
 2015). Even brief mental blocks created by shifting between tasks can cost as much as 40% of someoneÕs productive timeÑthatÕs 16 hours out of every work week!In our hyperconnected world
people are always onÑcollaborating
and creatingÑand not always aware of how technology impacts them or the environment. TodayÕs connected lifestyles will further harm the environment unless corrective actions are taken such as those listed in Figure 14.4.Reducing barriers to the useof public transport andimproving peopleÕs experienceof the journey. For example
smart ticketing and free Wi-Fi.Facilitating car sharing andeco-driving.Encouraging and enforcingspeed limits by using averagespeed cameras and intelligentspeed adaptation
which helpdrivers to avoid fines andstay safe.Enabling home working andusing video conferencing ande-commerce to reduce travel. FIGURE 14.4 Eco-friendly recommendations for applying ICT.


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