write:When devices or products are embedded with sensors companies can track their move-ments or monitor interactions with them. Business models can be adjusted to take advantage of wha

and Careersaccordingly. Machine-to-machine (M2M) technology enables sensor-embedded products to share reliable real-time data via radio signals. M2M and the Internet of Things (IoT) are widely used to automate business processes in industries ranging from transportation to health care. By adding sensors to trucks
utility meters
heart monitors
vending machines
and other equipment they sell
companies can track and manage their products remotely.When devices or products are embedded with sensors
companies can track their move-ments or monitor interactions with them. Business models can be adjusted to take advantage of what is learned from this behavioral data. For example
an insurance company offers to install location sensors in customersÕ cars. By doing so
the company develops the ability to price the driversÕ policies on how a car is driven and where it travels. Pricing is customized to match the actual risks of operating a vehicle rather than based on general proxiesÑdriverÕs age
or location of residence. Table 1.2 lists a number of opportunities for improvement through the application of embedded physical things.Lessons Learned from Companies Using Disruptive TechnologiesThose companies who have adapted to change by exploiting digital technology and software are outperforming their peers. According to a survey conducted by CA Associates
companies who have turned the way they use technology from being a cost center and operational function to being a genuine competitive differentiator are reaping the benefits. Many reported doubling their revenue growth
experiencing a higher profit by a factor of 2.5 and increasing new business-based revenue by a factor of 1.5 (Vaughn-Brown
 2014). The five factors to which companies attribute these benefits can be summed up in the following Lessons Learned:1. Exploit the power of software Become Òapp-centricÓ and extend core business func-tions to include software development.2. Develop
disruptÑquickly! Embrace agile development techniques and broadly implement DevOps.3. Boost speed and efficiency with automated programming interfaces (APIs) Take a managed approach to use APIs for building full-function Web applications (particularly mobile apps) and for integrating back-office systems.Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a set of capabilities enabled when physical things are connected to the Internet via sensors. TABLE 1.2 Improvement Opportunities from Embedded SensorsIndustry SectorApplicationPayoffOil and gasExploration and development rely on extensive sensor networks placed in the earthÕs crust. Sensors can produce accurate readings of the location
and dimensions of potential fieldsLower development costs and improved oil flowsHealth careSensors and data links can monitor patientsÕ behavior and symptoms in real time and at low cost allowing physicians to more precisely diagnose disease and prescribe treatment regimensReduce hospitalization and treatment costs by $1 billion per year in the United StatesRetailSensors can capture shoppersÕ profile data stored in their membership cards to help close purchasesAdditional information and discounts at point of saleFarmingGround sensors can take into account crop and field conditions and adjust the amount of fertilizer that is spread on areas that need more nutrientsReduction in time and costAdvertisingBillboards can scan people passing by
assessing how they fit consumer profiles
and instantly change displayed messages based on those assessmentsBetter targeted marketing campaigns; flexibility; increased revenuesAutomotiveSystems can detect imminent collisions and take evasive action
such as automatic braking systemsPotential accident reduction savings of more than $100 billion annually


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