write:focusingmainlyongrammar. Theparticulari-tiesofourownresearchprojectareaddedinitalics. ThestagesoftheanalysiswillbefurtherclariÞedinsection. . . StagesofinvestigationTh

focusingmainlyongrammar.Theparticulari-tiesofourownresearchprojectareaddedinitalics.ThestagesoftheanalysiswillbefurtherclariÞedinsection...StagesofinvestigationThestagesarepresentedinageneralizedwaythatmightbeappliedtoanylanguageandanyperiod
whilethemorespeciÞcparametersofourowninvestigationareshowninitalics.Weassumethatwealreadyhavetwocomparablecorpora
suchastheBrownandFrowncorpora.(A)Rationalizethemark-upofthecorpora.Themark-upofthecompa-rablecorporashouldbestandardizedorharmonized
sothattheortho-graphicfeaturesoftheoriginaltextsshouldbeidenticallyorequiva-lentlyretrievable.Originallythemark-upcodingsystemsofbothBrownandLOBbelongedtoanearlyperiodofcomputertechnology
whenthecharactersetforrepresentingtextsinmachine-readableformwasextremelylimited(charactersforBrown
andcharactersforLOB).Later
newversionsofthetwocorpora(usingdifferentmark-upconventions)becameavailable.Beforeundertakingourcomparablecorpusanalysis
weharmo-nizedthedifferentmark-upsystems
tomakesurethecomparisonbetweenthecorporawasasconsistentandpreciseaspossible.(B)Undertakeannotationofthecorpora
usingthesameannotationschemeandannotationtool
sothatboththecorporaandtheanno-tationsarecomparable.(Ifthetoolperformsitsannotationsautomati-cally
asisgenerallythecasewithaPOStagger
amanualpost-editingstageoferroreliminationfollows
tocorrecttheoutput.)Thus
weunder-tookaPOStaggingofallfourcorpora:Brown
Frown
LOBandF-LOB.TheannotationtoolusedwastheCLAWStagger
andthesetoftags(categorylabels)used
termedtheCtagset
wasanenrichedversionofthemoredetailedtagset(C)usedfortheBNCSamplerCorpus.TheautomatictaggingtookplaceatLancaster
andthepost-editingofF-LOBandFrowntookplaceatFreiburg.AlthoughtheBrownandLOBcorporahadalreadybeentaggedinpreviousversions
toensuretaggingconsistencyTheitemsthatwestandardizedincluded
forexample
delimitersforsentences
paragraphs
headings
quotations
captions
therepresentationofforeigntext
omitteditems(e.g.dia-gramsandtables)
highlightedtext(whetherbold
italicorunderlined)andspecialsymbols(e.g.accentedcharacters
fractions
end-of-linehyphens).TheCLAWStagger
whichachievesasuccessrateofbetween%and%
wassupple-mentedbyafurtherprogram
TemplateTagger
whichrunsovertheoutputofCLAWSandincreasestaggingaccuracytoapproximately%.CLAWSandTemplateTaggeraredescribedrespectivelyinGarsideandSmith()andFligelstoneetal.().

 

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